Quality Control (QC) Vocabulary

QC Vocabulary defines terms that are used in QC with the goals of 1) Ensuring that terms are used consistently, and 2) ensuring that terms are encoded consistently. The page for this topic is here.

This page shows terms for the "VIDEO" category. Video covers any issues with video concerning encoding, missing elements, sync, and general quality. Note that "PRODUCTION" covers video issues caused during production.

Version 1.1, December 17, 2019

Term Description Definition V
3D-ERRORS 3D Errors Term used to describe errors in the 3D video images. 1.0
ALIASING Aliasing Visible stairstep pattern on diagonal lines/objects usually caused by resolution resizing, improper deinterlacing or over-compression. 1.0
BAD-CHANNEL-CONDITIONS Bad Channel Conditions Occurs when the deck in improperly decoding channels, such as when tape stock is bad or the deck is out of alignment. Appears as digital hit(s) on the screen, but it doesn't always play back in the exactly the same way (not frame accurate). Could be one frame or several seconds. Always check the tape on multiple decks to confirm it's not deck specific. Tape deck will log condition errors in its error log during playback. Note that bad channel conditions might manifest itself as a HITS-CONCEALMENT-ERROR. However, if failure is known to be a bad channel condition, this error term should be used. 1.1
BANDING Banding Visible artifacts that result in rough color transitions in color gradations. This is often visible in black. Also known as "Quantizing" or "Posterization". 1.0
BLACKS-CRUSHED Black Levels (Crushed) The black levels of the video image are significantly crushed or clipped (analog or digital). For example, with a flat line at the bottom of the video scope accompanied by a loss of visual detail in the shadows. Can also be grading. 1.1
BLACKS-LIFTED Black Levels (Lifted) The black levels of the video image are significantly lifted (analog or digital). For example, above 10 IRE, raising the shadow areas of the image to a milky black that never truly touches true zero black. Can also be grading. 1.1
BLACKS-OUT-OF-RANGE Black Levels (Out-of-range) The black levels of the video image fall below the correct video range for the technical specification (analog or digital). For example, such as super-blacks below 0 IRE. 1.1
BLANKING Blanking Tape error: The video blanking outside of the active picture area is corrupted or an incorrect value. Does not refer to the matted area of a letterboxed aspect ratio. Note that blanking errors are typically identified by inspection analog sources. FRAMING-ERROR is used when source of issue is not known. 1.1
BLENDED-FRAMES Blended Frames Progressive frames that display 2 overlapping images from the combination of different fields or frames. Also known as "Ghosting" or "Interpolation". 1.0
BLURRY-CONTENT Video Content Appears Blurry Video images are soft, out of focus or generally low quality likely due to lossy compression. 1.0
CENTERCUT-EXTRACTION-ERROR Center Cut Extraction Error In a 4x3 center cut extraction from a 16x9 source, an element of the picture or text is cut off unnaturally. 1.1
CHROMA-BLEED Chroma Bleed The color of an object is saturated to the point that there is a loss of detail, edges are unnaturally defined or bleed into their surroundings. 1.1
CHROMA-KEY-NOISE Chroma Key Noise A specific colored area or the edges around an object are unnaturally noisy, due to a potential chroma key error. 1.1
COMMERCIAL-BLACKS Commercial Blacks Out Of Spec Black segments between acts in episodic or feature content that are longer or shorter than what is allowed per the specification in platform requirements. 1.0
CONTENT-POLICY Content Does Not Adhere to Agreed Policy Content does not adhere to platform's policy due to issues such as excessive nudity, violence, etc. 1.0
CORRUPT-FRAME Visible corruption in the picture in a single frame. Missing partial data from image. A portion of the frame shows part of the image from an entirely separate frame or even partial image break-up. For example, this can be characteristic of an interframe compression problem; caused during compressiong or resulting from file corruption. Might not appear the same on all playback devices. See HITS. 1.1
CORRUPT-MEZZ Corrupt Mezzanine File File will not open, playback or transcode. 1.0
DEADSTUCK-PIXEL Dead/Stuck Pixel A fixed pixel (or a couple pixels) that could be black, white, or discolored remains stuck on screen for most or all of the shot. See PIXEL-HIT for transient dead/stuck pixels. 1.1
DENSITY-FLICKER A brief change in the luminance of the image. A series of changes in brightness within a sequence that cause the image to visibly flicker when played back. See DENSITY-SHIFT. 1.1
DENSITY-SHIFT A change in the lightness or darkness of the image. An abrupt change in brightness mid-shot. A density shift is momentary, one-time visible change in the brightness. A “density flicker” is a series of density shifts at an interval that causes the appearance of flickering. See DENSITY-FLICKER. See MISTIMED-EVENTS for shifts between scenes. 1.1
DENSITY-SHIFT Density Shift A shift in the overall hue or luminance in the middle of a shot or between similar-looking shots. Sometimes called a Chroma shift 1.1
DROPPED-FRAMES Mezzanine Contains Dropped Frames Video appears to have missing sequential frames, which results in jerky motion upon playback. 1.0
DUB-CARDS-REQUIRED Dub Cards Not Present When Required Dub Cards are not included with package or stitched to the end of program when required. 1.0
DUPLICATE-FRAMES Mezzanine Contains Repeat/Duplicate Frames Video contains consecutive frames that are identical and are not creative intent (e.g., 4th frame repeat.). Also known as "Freeze Frame". 1.0
DURATION-MISMATCH Video/Audio Duration Mismatch Audio streams and video streams are different lengths beyond acceptable tolerance. 1.0
FIELD-DOMINANCE Mezzanine Has Incorrect Field Dominance Field order in video is reversed (e.g., Top Field First content is incorrectly ordered as Bottom Field First or vice versa.). 1.0
FIRST-FRAME-TIMECODE First Frame of Picture not associated with correct timecode The first frame of picture does not appear at correct time code per specification 1.1
FIXED-PATTERN-NOISE Fixed Pattern Noise A grid-like or crosshatch pattern over the screen most noticeable during a pan or over a plain background. Often related to the noise properties of a digital camera sensor 1.1
FLICKER Flicker All or part of the frame has a high frequency flicker, changing luminance or color 1.1
FRAMERATE Non-Native Framerate Refers to content that has been converted into a different framerate than the original (e.g., Film-based content that is 29.97i with 3:2 pulldown). 1.0
FRAMING-ERROR Framing Error Mattes or black borders are inconsistent throughout program. (This term can also be used for blanking issues.) 1.0
GENERIC-DEFECT Any video defact/actifact that is not covered by another category. A generic term for a visible defect in the video, usually due to digital processing. This should only be used when no other term applies. It may also apply when it is unclear which other term applies. 1.1
HITS Video Hits Colored blocks or checker patterns that appear for one or multiple fields/frames in the video and are commonly associated with (but not limited to) issues during tape capture or file transfer. 1.0
HITS-CONCEALMENT-ERROR Blocking, glitches, or portions of picture where groups of pixels have been shifted out of their correct position. Specifically for tape-based media, the playback VTR’s ability to compensate for/conceal missing digital information has been exceeded, often resulting in a visible and erratic video “hit.” HITS is the broader category. Note that this error might be the result of BAD-CHANNEL-CONDITIONS or other tape or deck problems. 1.1
I-FRAME-STROBING Mezzanine Contains I-Frame Strobing I-Frames of long GOP video files visibily flash at keyframe intervals. 1.0
IMAGE-LAG The image does not retain its integrity due to electronic processing. Overall image softness and smearing most noticeable during motion. Image lag occurs in a scene, rather than at an edit point. See BLENDED-FRAMES. Note that blended frames typically (not always) occur at an edit point. 1.1
INACTIVE-PIXELS Inactive pixels that don't fall into another category. Generic error for inactive pixels when another catogory does not apply or details are not known. See FRAMING-ERROR, BLANKING, PIXEL-ERROR-*, and others. 1.1
INCORRECT-ASPECT-RATIO Incorrect Aspect Ratio Aspect Ratio does not meet specification in platform requirements (e.g., Letterboxed content delivered when Full Frame is required). 1.0
INCORRECT-CONTENT Video Asset is Incorrect Content Program video does not match title, description, file name or ID expected. 1.0
INTERLACING Interlacing/Combing in Progressive Content Field artifacts such as horizontal lines still present in deinterlaced content. 1.0
INVALID-INSERT Inserts are not correct. Inserts are included, but not correct. For example, inserts from the wrong territory are included. This can include inserts caused by routing errors, "Put Commercial Here" cards that are not removed, slates, text, etc. See INVALID-CONTENT which coveres entire video. See TEMPORARY-MATERIAL. See MISSING-INSERT. 1.1
JUDDER Image has jerky motion due to incorrectly added or removed frames. Motion in picture is inconsistent due to a mismatch between transmission frame cadence and source frame cadence. Excludes reverse 3:2 pulldown. 1.1
MACROBLOCKING Mezzanine Contains Macroblocking Video is excessively blocky due to low bitrate or overly compressed source. 1.0
MISC-COLOR Miscellaneous Color Issues Color issues exist such as bleeding, saturation, etc. 1.0
MISSING-MATERIAL Missing Program Material Video is missing content at the beginning, middle or end of program. 1.0
MISTIMED-EVENT A color correction or density change, which starts or stops on the wrong frame. An abrupt and perceptible “flash” immediately before or after an edit. See DENSITY-SHIFT for mid-scene shifts. 1.1
MOIRE Moiré Rainbow diagonal striping found most often on small detailed cross patterns. ANOTHER DESCRIPTION: Fringes are an interference pattern that is formed when two similar grid-like patterns are superimposed. They create a pattern of their own that does not exist in either of the originals. The result is a series of fringe patterns that change shape when as the grids are moved relative to each other 1.1
MOSQUITO-NOISE Mosquito noise The pixels look like they are moving around – like mosquitoes, around sharp edges of objects such as text, due to video compression. 1.1
NOISE-GRAIN Noise/Grain/Activity The image contains a high contrast, grainy noise pattern, more than what is intended for a film or video source. This is a byproduct of processing, not director's creative intent. Could be a problem of grain/noise processing in postproduction or compression. 1.1
NON-NATIVE-ASPECT-RATIO Non-Native Aspect Ratio Image is either squeezed or stretched usually resulting from content encoded incorrectly at 4x3 or 16x9. 1.0
OTHER Other Any issue not covered by the standard terms and definitions. 1.0
OUT-OF-GAMUT Video out of gamut The color gamut exceeds specification. Note that this can be analog or digital. 1.1
OVER-SATURATION Over Saturation The color of an object is saturated to the point that there is a loss of detail, edges are unnaturally defined or bleed into their surroundings. 1.1
PAN-SCAN-ERROR Pan and Scan error Inappropriate portion of picture is in frame when pan-and-scan operation is performed. Examples include framing the wrong subject or 'panning' the opposite direction of the action and/or main character. 1.1
PEAK-LEVELS-CLAMPED Peak Levels (Clamped) Image dynamic range is lower than specification causing peak white levels to be clamped below desired limits. For example, visual elements that should be full 100% white consistently are clamped at 90% or lower. 1.1
PEAK-LEVELS-CLIPPED Peak Levels (Clipped) The peak/white levels of the video image are above spec resulting in clipping of peak luminance. This can result in a loss of visual detail in the highlights. 1.1
PEAK-LEVELS-OVER Peak Levels (Over) The peak/white levels of the video image are above the spec requirement. 1.1
PIXELATION Pixelation The display of large pixels in an image. For example, caused by over-enlarging a low resolution image. 1.1
PIXEL-HIT Pixel Hit A temporary flashed dead pixel (white, black, discolored) appears for one or a few frames on the image, larger pixel hits should be categorized as a digital hit. See DEADSTUCK-PIXEL for persistent dead/stuck pixels. 1.1
PLUGE-ERROR Video violates PLUGE encoding rules. Video includes signal below 7 IRE. Content intended for analog display includes values that are below alowed range. 1.1
POST-ROLL Invalid Post-Roll Video program contains extra content at the end of the file, which does not meet specification in platform requirements (e.g., MPAA Rating Cards, Advertisements, etc.). Also known as "Incorrect Tail Format". 1.0
POSTURIZATION Posterization Posterization occurs when an area of smooth color transitions into a shifted abrupt sequential transition. The effect produced when an image is displayed with less resolution than what is needed to make the image complete. Similar to banding but posterization can be a random shape. See SOLARIZED-HIGHLIGHTS which is more about color substitution. 1.1
POWER-WINDOW Power Window An unnatural shape or cut-out related to the DI color correction process is visible. This is typically a VFX error. 1.1
PRE-ROLL Invalid Pre-Roll Video program contains extra content at the beginning of the file, which does not meet specification in platform requirements (e.g., slates, academy leader, trailer, etc.). Also known as "Incorrect Head Format". 1.0
PROMO-CONTENT Unapproved Promotional Content Calls to action to specific sites/platforms, formats, or dates (e.g., "On Blu-Ray 7/2012") that are not relevant to the platform the content was delivered to. 1.0
RENDER-ERROR-OTHER Render Error not covered by another term. Miscellaneous anomaly created by a failure in the render process 1.1
RESOLUTION Incorrect Resolution Lower resolution source was provided for a title that was expected to be delivered in a higher resolution. 1.0
RINGING-ANALOG Ringing (visual echos). Video ringing, typically seen around edges. See ALIASING. 1.1
RINGING-DIGITAL Ringing as a byproduct of compression Ringing caused by digital processing, tyipcally over-compression. May manifest itself as bright, saturated colors or colored patterns are causing a pulsing or buzzing type of video noise around it. Seen RINGING-ANALOG. See Wiki "Ringing Artifacts" article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ringing_artifacts 1.1
SHADING-VIGNETTING Shading/Vignetting The edges of the frame or an object have an unnatural dark shading or vignetting effect along the corners of the image 1.1
SOLARIZED-HIGHLIGHTS Solarized Highlights The white highlights of an image have color artifacting within them, for example the outside ring of a highlight is whiter than the inside of the highlight, inverted from what it should be. This includes both analog solarization (e.g., Sabbatier Effect) as well as digital color mapping problems (e.g., incorrect LUT). See POSTURIZATION which is more about color flattening. 1.1
STRETCHING Stretching The images is stretched or distorted. For example, if mattes were cut off and video was stretched to fill frame. See KEYSTONE-DISTORTION, PRODUCTION/ROLLING-SHUTTER, PRODUCTION/WARPING 1.1
STUTTER Image stutter, typically from too much motion for given frame rate. The motion on screen is stuttery, jagged, or has an unnatural cadence from regularly doubled frames, or regularly skipped frames throughout the shot. 1.1
SUBS-ACTIVE-PIXELS Burned-in Subtitles Outside Active Pixel Area Subtitles are burned-in to letterbox/matte. 1.0
TEMPORARY-MATERIAL Temporary material Temporary or stock footage that was inadvertantly left in the program. Could have visible timecodes, text burn-ins (e.g., ADR notes), incomplete VFX, previz, low quality temporary video, etc. See INVALID-INSERT 1.1
TEXTLESS-CONTENT Textless Content at Tail Video program contains textless versions of program content at the end of the file, which does not meet specification in platform requirements. Also known as "Textless Material". 1.0
VISIBLE-SIGNAL Visible Video Signal in Picture Video displays visible signal such as Line 21 Closed Captions, VITC, etc. 1.0
VISIBLE-TIMECODE Visible Timecode The embedded time code is fully or partially visible. Typically, this is either at the top or bottom of the frame. For VITC, see VISIBLE-SIGNAL. 1.1
VISIBLE-WATERMARK Visible Watermark Picture has visible watermark such as a network logo (bug). See GRAPHIC-OVERLAY-ISSUE and LOGO-ERROR. 1.1
COLOR-MASTERING Incorrect Color Mastering Video mastered to incorrect chroma subsampling, primaries or dynamic range. 1.0
MISSING-INSERT Inserts are expected but no present. Inserts, such as "Put Commercial Here" are expected but absent from the timeline. Can also include missing insterstitials like, "10 years later". See INVALID-INSERT. 1.1